An entirely new type and class of motor and generator (both linear and rotary). Utilizing entirely different methods of operation, these machines do not depend on the principles of switched magnetic reluctance, enabling efficiencies far beyond conventional motor/generator technologies. This technology does not require complex electronic controllers or mechanical commutation with virtually silent operation with little heat gain and losses. The first electric motor that accepts any source of electric power, DC, or AC power, single phase or three phase.The highest watt per torque ever established and thrives on low speed-high torque operation without overheating. Extreme reliability as a coil fault or short doesn't stop motor/generator operation, perfect for critical or safe shutdown loads. In regenerative service as in electric vehicles, instantly converts momentum directly into battery charging. Perfect for windpower, wavepower or other high torque-low speed machines.